A planetary system around the nearby M dwarf GI 357 including a transiting hot Earth-sized planet optimal for atmospheric characterisation by R. Luque, CSI member Lisa Kaltenegger and colleagues: email: firstname.lastname@example.org
We report the detection of a transiting Earth-size planet around Gl 357, a nearby M2.5 V star, using data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). Gl 357 b (TOI-562.01) is a transiting hot Earth-sized planet (Teq=531+-12 K) with a radius of Rb=1.17+-0.06 Re and an orbital period of Pb=3.93 d. Precise stellar radial velocities from CARMENES as well as archival data from HIRES, UVES, and HARPS, also display a 3.93-day periodicity, confirming the existence of the planet and leading to planetary mass of Mb=1.63+-0.30 Me. In addition to the radial velocity signal for Gl 357 b, a second periodicity with Pc=9.12 d indicates the presence of a second, non-transiting planet candidate in the system, Gl 357 c, with a minimum mass of Mc=3.59+-0.50 Me. The star is relatively inactive and exhibits a photometric rotation period of Prot=78+-2 d. Gl 357 b is the second closest transiting planet to the Sun; its brightness makes it a prime target for further investigations, such as atmospheric spectroscopy and is, to date, the best terrestrial transiting planet suitable for atmospheric characterisation with the upcoming JWST and the ground-based ELTs.